Database management is the system to manage information that is essential to an organization’s business operations. It involves storing and distributing data it to users and applications and editing it as required and monitoring changes to data and protecting against data corruption due to unexpected failure. It is one component of a company’s total informational infrastructure which aids in decision making and growth for the business as well as compliance with laws like the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

The first database systems were invented in the 1960s by Charles Bachman, IBM and others. They evolved into information management systems (IMS), which allowed huge amounts of data to be stored and retrieved for a range of purposes. From calculating inventory, to aiding complex financial accounting functions as well as human resource functions.

A database consists of tables that organize data according to a particular arrangement, like one-to-many relationships. It utilizes primary keys to identify records, and allow cross-references between tables. Each table is comprised of a variety of fields, also known as attributes, that provide information about the entities that comprise the data. The most widely used type of database currently is a relational model designed by E. F. “Ted” Codd at IBM in the 1970s. This design is based on normalizing the data, making it easier to use. It also makes it easier to update data since it eliminates the necessity of changing various databases.

The majority of DBMSs support a variety of databases by offering different internal and external levels of organization. The internal level is focused on cost, scalability, and other operational issues like the physical layout of the database. The external level is the way the database is represented in user interfaces and other applications. It could comprise a combination of various external views (based on different data models) and could also include virtual tables which are generated from generic data in order to improve performance.

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